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Copper, Iron, and Manganese Toxicity in Neuropsychiatric Conditions

Copper, manganese, and iron are vital elements required for the appropriate development and the general preservation of good health. Additionally, these essential metals play key roles in ensuring proper brain development and function. They also play vital roles in the central nervous system as significant cofactors for several enzymes, including the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) and other enzymes that take part in the creation and breakdown of neurotransmitters in the brain. An imbalance in the levels of these metals weakens the structural, regulatory, and catalytic roles of different enzymes, proteins, receptors, and transporters and is known to provoke the development of various neurological conditions through different mechanisms, such as via induction of oxidative stress, increased α-synuclein aggregation and fibril formation, and stimulation of microglial cells, thus resulting in inflammation and reduced production of metalloproteins. In the present review, the authors focus on neurological disorders with psychiatric signs associated with copper, iron, and manganese excess and the diagnosis and potential treatment of such disorders. In this review, the authors described diseases related to these metals, such as aceruloplasminaemia, neuroferritinopathy, pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN) and other very rare classical NBIA forms, manganism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), ephedrone encephalopathy, HMNDYT1-SLC30A10 deficiency (HMNDYT1), HMNDYT2-SLC39A14 deficiency, CDG2N-SLC39A8 deficiency, hepatic encephalopathy, prion disease and "prion-like disease", amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, Friedreich's ataxia, and depression.

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