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FARA Funded Research

Your generous support has funded all the research listed below.


For more information on FARA-funded research & scientists, please visit FARA Supported Research, Active Clinical Trials and the Featured Scientist.

Predictors of loss of ambulation in Friedreich's ataxia

Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a characterized by progressive loss of coordination and balance leading to loss of ambulation (LoA) in nearly all affected individuals. While transition to becoming fully wheelchair bound is a critical milestone in the disease course, it presents a particularly challenging prediction, mostly due to variability in inter- and intra-subject severity and progression. For these reasons, LoA or potential surrogates have been impractical as outcomes in clinical trials. The authors studied progressive features leading to LoA in participants enrolled into the Friedreich's Ataxia Clinical Outcome Measures Study (FA-COMS), a natural history study with currently 4606 yearly follow up visits in 1021 patients. Loss of specific functions related to walking and standing of the neurological Friedreich Ataxia Rating Scale (FARS) exams were evaluated using time to event methods. To account for different severities, patients were stratified by age of disease onset. Early onset FRDA patients (

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Frataxin Structure and Function

Mammalian frataxin is a small mitochondrial protein involved in iron sulfur cluster assembly. Valuable knowledge has been gained on the structural dynamics of frataxin, metal-ion-protein interactions, as well as on the effect of mutations on protein conformation, stability and internal motions. Additionally, laborious studies concerning the enzymatic reactions involved have allowed for understanding the capability of frataxin to modulate Fe-S cluster assembly function. Remarkably, frataxin biological function depends on its interaction with some proteins to form a supercomplex, among them NFS1 desulfurase and ISCU, the scaffolding protein. By combining multiple experimental tools including high resolution techniques like NMR and X-ray, but also SAXS, crosslinking and mass-spectrometry, it was possible to build a reliable model of the structure of the desulfurase supercomplex NFS1/ACP-ISD11/ISCU/frataxin. This review explores these issues showing how the scientific view concerning frataxin structure-function relationships has evolved over the last years.

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Health related quality of life in Friedreich Ataxia in a large heterogeneous cohort

This study assessed the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) of individuals with Friedreich Ataxia (FRDA) through responses to HRQOL questionnaires. The SF-36, a generic HRQOL instrument, and symptom specific scales examining vision, fatigue, pain and bladder function were administered to individuals with FRDA and analyzed by comparison with disease features. Multiple linear regression models were used to study independent effects of genetic severity and age. Assessments were performed at baseline then intermittently after that. Subjects were on average young adults. For the SF36, the subscale with the lowest HRQOL score was the physical function scale, while the emotional well-being score was the highest. The physical function scale correlated with age of onset, duration, and subject age. In assessment of symptom specific scales, bladder control scores (BLCS) correlated with duration and age, while impact of visual impairment scores (IVIS) correlated with duration. In linear regression models, the BLCS, Pain Effect Score, and IVIS scores were predicted by age and GAA length; modified fatigue impact scale scores were predicted only by GAA length. Physical function and role limitation scores declined over time. No change was seen over time in other SF-36 subscores. Symptom specific scales also worsened over time, most notably the IVIS and BLCS. The SF-36 and symptom specific scales capture dysfunction in FRDA in a manner that reflects disease status. HRQOL dysfunction was greatest on physically related scales; such scales correlated with disease duration, indicating that they worsen with progressing disease.

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Multiple mechanisms underpin cerebral and cerebellar white matter deficits in Friedreich ataxia: The IMAGE-FRDA study

This study examined the relative sensitivity and relationship between multiple white matter indices in Friedreich ataxia to more richly characterize disease expression and infer possible mechanisms underlying the observed white matter abnormalities. Diffusion-tensor, magnetization transfer, and T1-weighted structural images were acquired from 31 individuals with Friedreich ataxia and 36 controls. Six white matter indices were extracted: fractional anisotropy, diffusivity (mean, axial, radial), magnetization transfer ratio (microstructure), and volume (macrostructure). For each index, whole-brain voxel-wise between-group comparisons and correlations with disease severity, onset age, and gene triplet-repeat length were undertaken. Correlations between pairs of indices were assessed in the Friedreich ataxia cohort. Spatial similarities in the voxel-level pattern of between-group differences across the indices were also assessed. Microstructural abnormalities were maximal in cerebellar and brainstem regions, but evident throughout the brain, while macroscopic abnormalities were restricted to the brainstem. Poorer microstructure and reduced macrostructural volume correlated with greater disease severity and earlier onset, particularly in peri-dentate nuclei and brainstem regions. Microstructural and macrostructural abnormalities were largely independent. Reduced fractional anisotropy was most strongly associated with axial diffusivity in cerebral tracts, and magnetization transfer in cerebellar tracts. Multiple mechanisms likely underpin white matter abnormalities in Friedreich ataxia, with differential impacts in cerebellar and cerebral pathways.

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Longitudinal Increases in Cerebral Brain Activation During Working Memory Performance in Friedreich Ataxia: 24-Month Data from IMAGE-FRDA

This study assessed longitudinal changes in brain activation, associated with working memory performance (N-back task), and grey matter volume over 24 months in 21 individuals with Friedreich Ataxia (FRDA) and 28 healthy controls using functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Participants also completed a neurocognitive battery assessing working memory (digit span), executive function (Stroop, Haylings), and set-shifting (Trail Making Test). Individuals with FRDA displayed significantly increased brain activation over 24 months in ventral attention brain regions, including bilateral insula and inferior frontal gyrus (pars triangularis and pars opercularis), compared with controls, but there was no difference in working memory (N-back) performance between groups. Moreover, there were no significant differences in grey matter volume changes between groups. Significant correlations between brain activations and both clinical severity and age at disease onset were observed in FRDA individuals only at 24 months. There was significant longitudinal decline in Trail Making Test (TMT) difference score (B-A) in individuals with FRDA, compared with controls. These findings provide the first evidence of increased longitudinal activation over time in the cerebral cortex in FRDA, compared with controls, despite comparable working memory performance. This finding represents a possible compensatory response in the ventral attention network to help sustain working memory performance in individuals with FRDA.

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