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Phenotype and management of neurologic intronic repeat disorders (NIRDs)

During recent years an increasing number of neurologic disorders due to expanded tri-, tetra-, penta-, or hexa-nucleotide repeat motifs in introns of various genes have been described (neurologic intronic repeat disorders (NIRDs)). The repeat may be pathogenic in the heterozygous or homozygous form. Repeat lengths vary considerably and can be stable or unstable during transmission to the next generation. The most well-known NIRDs are Friedreich ataxia, spinocerebellar ataxia types-10, -31, and -36, CANVAS, C9Orf72 familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS), and myotonic dystrophy-2 (MD2). Phenotypically, NIRDs manifest as mono-organ (e.g. spinocerebellar ataxia type 31) or multi-organ disease (e.g. Friedreich ataxia, myotonic dystrophy-2). A number of other more rare NIRDs have been recently detected. This review aims at summarising and discussing previous findings and recent advances concerning the etiology, pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and therapeutic management of the most common NIRDs.

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