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Possible Mechanisms of Biological Effects Observed in Living Systems during 2H/1H Isotope Fractionation and Deuterium Interactions with Other Biogenic Isotopes

This article presents the original descriptions of some recent physics mechanisms (based on the thermodynamic, kinetic, and quantum tunnel effects) providing stable 2H/1H isotope fractionation, leading to the accumulation of particular isotopic forms in intra- or intercellular space, including the molecular effects of deuterium interaction with 18O/17O/16O, 15N/14N, 13C/12C, and other stable biogenic isotopes. These effects were observed mainly at the organelle (mitochondria) and cell levels. A new hypothesis for heavy nonradioactive isotope fractionation in living systems via neutron effect realization is discussed. The comparative analysis of some experimental studies results revealed the following observation: "Isotopic shock" is highly probable and is observed mostly when chemical bonds form between atoms with a summary odd number of neutrons (i.e., bonds with a non-compensated neutron, which correspond to the following equation: Nn - Np = 2k + 1, where k ϵ Z, k is the integer, Z is the set of non-negative integers, Nn is number of neutrons, and Np is number of protons of each individual atom, or in pair of isotopes with a chemical bond). Data on the efficacy and metabolic pathways of the therapy also considered 2H-modified drinking and diet for some diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Friedreich's ataxia, mitochondrial disorders, diabetes, cerebral hypoxia, Parkinson's disease, and brain cancer.

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