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Scientific News

FARA funds research progress

In this section, you will find the most recent FA research publications, many of which are funded by FARA, as well as information on upcoming conferences and symposiums. You can search for articles by date using the archive box in the right hand column. To locate FARA Funded or Supported Research, click the hyperlink in the right hand column. You may also search for specific content using key words or phrases in the search button at the top right of your screen. Please be sure to visit other key research sections of our website for information on FARA’s Grant Program and the Treatment Pipeline.

Primary Proprioceptive Neurons From Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: A Cell Model for Afferent Ataxias

Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are used to generate models of human diseases that recapitulate the pathogenic process as it occurs in affected cells. Many differentiated cell types can currently be obtained from iPSCs, but no validated protocol is yet available to specifically generate primary proprioceptive neurons. Proprioceptors are affected in a number of genetic and acquired diseases, including Friedreich ataxia (FRDA). To develop a cell model that can be applied to conditions primarily affecting proprioceptors, a protocol to differentiate iPSCs into primary proprioceptive neurons was established. The authors modified the dual-SMAD inhibition/WNT activation protocol, previously used to generate nociceptor-enriched cultures of primary sensory neurons from iPSCs, to favor instead the generation of proprioceptors. The authors succeeded in substantially enriching iPSC-derived primary sensory neuron cultures for proprioceptors, up to 50% of finally differentiated neurons, largely exceeding the proportion of 7.5% normally represented by these cells in dorsal root ganglia. This study also showed that almost pure populations of proprioceptors can be purified from these cultures by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Finally, the authors demonstrated that the protocol can be used to generate proprioceptors from iPSCs from FRDA patients, providing a cell model for this genetic sensory neuronopathy.

Read the entire article HERE

Oxidative Stress in DNA Repeat Expansion Disorders: A Focus on NRF2 Signaling Involvement

DNA repeat expansion disorders are a group of neuromuscular and neurodegenerative diseases that arise from the inheritance of long tracts of nucleotide repetitions, located in the regulatory region, introns, or inside the coding sequence of a gene. Although loss of protein expression and/or the gain of function of its transcribed mRNA or translated product represent the major pathogenic effect of these pathologies, mitochondrial dysfunction and imbalance in redox homeostasis are reported as common features in these disorders, deeply affecting their severity and progression. This review examines the role that the redox imbalance plays in the pathological mechanisms of DNA expansion disorders and the recent advances on antioxidant treatments, particularly focusing on the expression and the activity of the transcription factor NRF2, the main cellular regulator of the antioxidant response.

Read the entire article HERE

Neurologic Outcomes in Friedreich Ataxia: Study of a Single-Site Cohort

This study investigates the pattern of progression of neurologic impairment in Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) and identify patients with fast disease progression as detected by clinical rating scales. Clinical, demographic, and genetic data were analyzed from 54 patients with FRDA included at the Brussels site of the European Friedreich's Ataxia Consortium for Translational Studies, with an average prospective follow-up of 4 years. Afferent ataxia predated other features of FRDA, followed by cerebellar ataxia and pyramidal weakness. The Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) best detected progression in ambulatory patients and in the first 20 years of disease duration but did not effectively capture progression in advanced disease. Dysarthria, sitting, and upper limb coordination items kept worsening after loss of ambulation. Eighty percent of patients needing support to walk lost ambulation within 2 years. Age at onset had a strong influence on progression of neurologic and functional deficits, which was maximal in patients with symptom onset before age 8 years. All these patients became unable to walk by 15 years after onset, significantly earlier than patients with later onset. Progression in the previous 1 or 2 years was not predictive of progression in the subsequent year. The SARA is a sensitive outcome measure in ambulatory patients with FRDA and has an excellent correlation with functional capabilities. Ambulatory patients with onset before age 8 years showed the fastest measurable worsening. Loss of ambulation in high-risk patients is a disease milestone that should be considered as an end point in clinical trials.

Read the entire article HERE

Therapeutic Potential of Stem Cells for Treatment of Neurodegenerative Diseases

The regenerative potential of stem cells drew the attention of researchers to cell-based therapy for treating neurodegenerative diseases. The clinical application of stem cells may help to substitute new cells and overcome the inability of the endogenous repairing system to repair the damaged brain. However, the clinical application of induced pluripotent stem cells is restricted due to the risk of tumor formation by residual undifferentiated cells upon transplantation. In this focused review, the authors briefly discussed different stem cells currently being studied for therapeutic development. Moreover, they present supporting evidence for the utilization of stem cell therapy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Also, the authors described the key issues that should be considered to transplantation of stem cells for different neurodegenerative diseases. In conclusion, the authors suggest that stem cell therapy probably would be the only treatment strategy that offers a cure for neurodegenerative disease, although further studies are required to identify ideal stem cells candidates, dosing and the ideal method of cell transplantation. The authors suggest that all grafted cells would be transgenically armed with a molecular kill-switch that could be activated in the event of adverse side effects.

Read the entire article HERE

ExpansionHunter Denovo: A Computational Method for Locating Known and Novel Repeat Expansions in Short-Read Sequencing Data

Repeat expansions are responsible for over 40 monogenic disorders, and undoubtedly more pathogenic repeat expansions remain to be discovered. Existing methods for detecting repeat expansions in short-read sequencing data require predefined repeat catalogs. Recent discoveries emphasize the need for methods that do not require pre-specified candidate repeats. To address this need, we introduce ExpansionHunter Denovo, an efficient catalog-free method for genome-wide repeat expansion detection. Analysis of real and simulated data shows that this method can identify large expansions of 41 out of 44 pathogenic repeats, including nine recently reported non-reference repeat expansions not discoverable via existing methods.

Read the entire article HERE

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